The 100-year timeline of the Lung Association of Saskatchewan describes a very rich history of Canadian and world firsts.
|1900||Several concerned citizens gathered at Rideau Hall in Ottawa on September 13 to form The Canadian Association for the Prevention of Consumption and other Forms of Tuberculosis to fight the deadly epidemic. Lord Minto, the Governor General of Canada at the time, agrees to be the honorary president.|
|1902||The Muskoka Free Hospital opens in Ontario. It is believed to be the first free sanatorium in the world.|
|1904||Provincial associations, and local associations, become affiliated with the national association, including: The Montreal League, the St. Francis District League, Toronto Anti-Consumption Association and the British Columbia Association for the Prevention and Treatment of Consumption.|
|1908||First Christmas Seal is issued in Canada by interested people in Toronto and Hamilton to raise funds to build sanatoria. Soon afterwards, other cities across Canada joined the Christmas Seal campaign as a means not only of raising money but of creating the awareness that tuberculosis could be controlled.|
|1910||Dr. M. M. Seymour, Commissioner for Health in Saskatchewan initiates meetings regarding tuberculosis treatment.|
|1911||Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League was organized on February 11, and incorporated on March 23. It was Saskatchewan’s first health charity. Peter McAra was the first President and Dr. William Hart was the first Medical Superintendent. Funds raised by voluntary subscription totaled $97,000. [Read more about tuberculosis and the history of TB.]|
|1913||Construction began on the Fort Qu’Appelle Sanatorium with the aid of provincial government grants. Andrew Cook was elected League President.|
|1914||Construction was suspended owing to the outbreak of World War I and resumed in 1916.|
|1917||The Saskatchewan Sanatorium (later re-named “Fort Qu’Appelle Sanatorium” in 1923 but generally known as Fort San) opened October 10. By December, 60 beds were filled. Dr. R. George Ferguson was appointed as Medical Superintendent.|
|1919||On October 30, the Children’s Pavilion opened; the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire (IODE) donated $45,000 and paid for treatment for those unable to pay. Everywoman’s Fund provided $50,000 towards cost of caring for indigent tuberculosis mothers. The Sanatorium facilities were enlarged. In March, the Red Cross Lodge was built. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) visited Fort San in October. In December, the first Valley Echo, the sanatorium newsletter, was published. (The Valley Echo continued to be published until 1965.)|
|1921||The first school survey in Canada was conducted - 1346 Saskatchewan school students were tested for TB infection. The first schoolroom for children receiving treatment was opened in the sanatorium. League President Andrew B. Cook was appointed Managing Director.|
The first diagnostic clinic in a general hospital was opened at Regina General Hospital.
The Canadian Association for the Prevention of Consumption and Other Forms of TB becomes the Canadian Tuberculosis Association.
|1924||Municipal funding pools were initiated to finance care of indigent patients.|
|1925||The Saskatoon Sanatorium was opened April 15 with 135 beds and Dr. Harvey C. Boughton as the Medical Superintendent.|
The Preventorium opened at Fort Qu’Appelle Sanatorium supported by IODE. Babies born of tuberculous mothers received care isolated from their mothers to prevent them from developing TB.
The first National Christmas Seal is issued. More than $91,000 is raised.
|1928||The first Christmas Seal Campaign in Saskatchewan was held. Bobby Roberts was appointed Secretary of the League and served until 1952. [View Christmas Seals from years past in our Christmas Seals Gallery and read about the history of Christmas Seals].|
|1929||Saskatchewan became the first jurisdiction in the Americas to provide free treatment for all TB patients. Legislation provided for treatment of all Saskatchewan residents to be covered by government grants and municipal taxes. This laid the groundwork for the introduction of Medicare by Premier Tommy Douglas, paving the way for Canada's universal health care system.|
|1930||The Prince Albert Sanatorium opened on January 7 with Dr. Robert W. Kirkby as the Medical Superintendent. Peter McAra began a second term as League President.|
|1931||Dr. RG Ferguson conducted the first scientific study of BCG vaccination of North American aboriginal babies in the world, which led to a vaccination program that substantially reduced TB deaths in infants and children.|
|1934||Association Canadian Travellers (ACT) adopted TB prevention as their humanitarian effort. The ACT would eventually contribute over $2 million to the League/Lung Association.|
|1938||The first program in the world for BCG vaccination of student nurses began at Fort San. Rural municipal secretary-treasurers pledged to raise funds for the Christmas Seal Fund.|
|1939||In January, the First ACT Radio Amateur Hour Show at Parkside (P.A. Club & CKBI) started. Rural Municipal Secretary-Treasurers gave support to Christmas Seal Campaign and the first Pohlmann Trophy awarded for 1941-1942 Campaign.|
|1941||Using innovative x-ray and photographic technology, Fort San staff designed and built a photofluorograph unit that could be used for mass surveys. The first mass x-ray survey for TB in the Americas was held at Melville.|
|1942||Moose Jaw became the first city in the Americas to have chest x-rays of virtually all residents for detection of TB.|
|1943||Two more survey vans were serving the province and Saskatchewan led the world in mass surveys of communities. Saskatchewan was the first jurisdiction in Canada to achieve the ideal of 3 sanatorium beds for every death in the province (270 deaths, 822 beds).|
|1944||The Bill Shultz Memorial Fund, sponsored by Radio Station CHAB and with the assistance of the Moose Jaw ACT Club, contributed $83,000 to the Preventive Fund for the purchase of new x-ray survey equipment.|
|1945||The Nurses Affiliation Course began. It continued to 1959 and trained 311 nurses in TB management. Fort San was further enlarged to accommodate returning ex-servicemen with tuberculosis. E. G. Hingley became League President.|
|1946||A medical section of the Canadian Tuberculosis Association was established for TB doctors. This group later became known as the Canadian Thoracic Society in 1958.|
|1947||The Canadian Tuberculosis Association officially endorsed the BCG vaccine as a tool to fight TB.|
Dr. R. G. Ferguson, Director of Medical Services and General Superintendent, retired and was succeeded by Dr. John Orr. Hospital admission x-rays were initiated with the co-operation of general hospitals and federal tuberculosis control grants.
A nurses' section of the Canadian Tuberculosis Association is formed.
|1952||Drugs became an important part of tuberculosis treatment. Field nurses began tuberculin testing and vaccinating in the far north. Frank Froh became the Secretary of the League and later his position was changed to Executive Director where he served until 1984.|
|1954||Community tuberculin tests began in conjunction with community x-ray surveys.|
|1955||Studies in Tuberculosis by Dr. R.G. Ferguson was published by the University of Toronto Press and quickly became an important textbook.|
Dr. John Orr retired, succeeded by Dr. G. Dudley Barnett as Director of Medical Services and General Superintendent. Ken More became League President.
The Canadian Thoracic Society, the medical section of the Canadian Tuberculosis Association, is founded. The society consisted of a group of doctors especially interested in the field of chest medicine. Dr. Bill C. W .L. Jeanes was recruited from Britain to be medical director.
|1959||The Research Grants and Fellowship program was established, with funds raised from Christmas Seals, to promote research into any field of lung disease.|
Steadily decreasing numbers of patients and new TB cases being found gave rise to consideration of the future of TB in Saskatchewan by a joint committee appointed by the government and the League.
With the advent of antibiotic drugs, the rates of TB declined in Canada. The Canadian Tuberculosis Association began sharing its hard-won TB knowledge with the world, participating in projects in Africa and Asia.
|1961||The fiftieth Anniversary of the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League was celebrated. The Prince Albert Sanatorium was closed on July 27.|
|1966||The Wherrett-Grzybowski report provided long-term plans for the transition from sanatorium-based to community-based TB care and the transition of the Anti-Tuberculosis League to the Lung Association. The plan included a TB professorship at the University of Saskatchewan which 9 years later became the Ferguson Professorship in honour of Dr. R.G. Ferguson. William Howes became League President.|
|1967||The League began supporting international TB programs through the CLA Mutual Assistance program. The Saskatchewan Arts Board program began at Fort San.|
|1968||The government grant for TB patients was $5 per patient per day compared to the initial 50¢/day.|
|1969||Recognizing the need to fight other respiratory diseases, the Canadian Tuberculosis Association changes its name to the Canadian Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association. Education programs are established on asthma, the effects of smoking and lung cancer.|
All TB beds at Fort San were closed in March. The school spot check tuberculin surveys began and continued to 1982.
The Canadian Tuberculosis Association Nurses' Advisory Committee is formed. This group later becomes the Canadian Nurses Respiratory Society in 1977.
|1973||On June 14, an Agreement for TB control services and education was signed by the League, the University of Saskatchewan and the University Hospital. The Sanatorium Act was amended expand the mandate of the League to prevention of other respiratory diseases. In October, the League became a charter member of Saskatchewan Interagency Council on Smoking & Health.|
|1975||Dr. Jim Dosman, the first Ferguson Professor and the first respirologist in Saskatchewan, arrived and initiated the Pulmonary Division in the Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan.|
|1976||Dr. David Cotton was recruited to the Pulmonary Division.|
The league provided funding to recruit two more respirologists, Dr.’s Donald Cockcroft and Vernon Hoeppner, to the Pulmonary Division. The League also funded a community survey of lung function in Humboldt and an International Grain Dust Symposium. J. Wilf Churchman became League President.
To reflect its new work, The Canadian Tuberculosis Association changes its name to The Canadian Lung Association.
On June 26, the last patient was discharged from the Saskatoon Sanatorium completing 10.5 million treatment days for TB in the 3 sanatoria. This was the last year that the League received levies from rural and urban municipalities for TB care. The League began lung disease surveillance of all grain handlers in the province with lung function tests and chest x-rays, which were repeated every 3-years. The Pink Panthers Better Breathing Association was formed in Saskatoon.
A physiotherapy section of The Canadian Lung Association is formed.
|1979||The last mass community x-ray and tuberculin test surveys were conducted. The Moorhead Foundation was formed for research on asthma.|
|1981||The 70th Anniversary of the League was marked by a film by Sask Media. On April 1, the League ceased to operate the Saskatoon San and administration was transferred to Frank Eliason Centre. On September 2, a second 5-year agreement with the University of Saskatchewan was signed. In December the Prince Albert Outpatient Tuberculosis Clinic at Victoria Union Hospital was closed.|
|1982||In May, the Saskatoon tuberculosis outpatient clinic moved to Ellis Hall, University Hospital.|
The Spring Seals campaign for lung disease research was launched in Saskatchewan and adopted by other provincial Lung Associations in the following years.
World’s first successful single lung transplant
|1985||On April 1 the Tuberculosis Laboratory was transferred from Saskatoon to the University of Saskatchewan. A new Lung Association office in Saskatoon opened with Brian Graham as Executive Director.|
Dr. Vern Hoeppner was appointed Director of TB Control and the Ferguson Professor. The League became a founder of the Centre for Health in Agriculture at the University of Saskatchewan with a grant of $125,000 over 5 years. The 75th anniversary of the League was celebrated with a re-enactment of the ACT Amateur Hour and the production of a history book by Jean Larmour.
World’s first successful double lung transplant
|1987||On June 27, the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League changed its official name to the Saskatchewan Lung Association. On July 31, 76 years of being responsible for the diagnosis, treatment, care and prevention of tuberculosis in Saskatchewan came to an end with the transfer of the TB Control program to Saskatchewan Health. The office at Fort San was closed and moved to Saskatoon. Dr. David Cotton was appointed Ferguson Professor.|
The first Asthma Camp was held in Saskatchewan with major support from the ACT. Asthma Camps continued until 2007. Jim A. Burnett became President of the Saskatchewan Lung Association.
The Non-smokers' Health Act (Bill C-204) restricting smoking in federal workplaces and on common carriers (planes, trains, boats and intercity buses), and the Tobacco Products Control Act (Bill C-51) were passed by Parliament. Bill C-51 provided the authority to ban all tobacco advertising, impose restrictions on and gradually phase out promotional activities and sponsorship of events or persons by tobacco manufacturers, and require more explicit health warnings on tobacco product packages. (source: Canadian Public Health Association).
The Environmental Protection Act was passed to reduce the contribution of vehicles and engines to air pollution in Canada.
The Smoke-Free Grads of 2000 project was launched and continued with 12 years of school programs aimed at smoking prevention. Better Breathers Chapters for patients with lung disease were formed and spread across the province in subsequent years.
The federal government required cigarette manufacturers to list the additives and amounts for each brand. A ban on smoking was imposed in domestic airlines.
Victoria, BC was the first city to ban smoking in all workplaces and public spaces with no allowance for designated smoking rooms.
|1990||The founding meeting of the Saskatchewan Thoracic Society was held on June 11 and Dr. Donald Cockcroft became its first president. The Lung Association became an accredited placement for students in various Health Sciences programs at the University of Saskatchewan.|
|1992||The Saskatchewan Lung Association and Saskatchewan Thoracic Society were key members of the Home Respiratory Therapy committee which enhanced home oxygen therapy provided by SAIL and began advocating for the establishment of a sleep apnea testing in the province.|
|1993||A sample bylaw to establish smoke-free places including restaurants was sent to Saskatchewan mayors.|
|1994||Dr. Charles Gallagher was appointed Ferguson Professor.|
|1995||Sleep Disorders Centres were opened in Regina and Saskatoon.|
|1996||The Saskatchewan Lung Association launched the www.lung.ca website and developed content with information about lung health and lung diseases - one of the first such websites in the world. Saskatchewan Lung Association continued to operate the site on behalf of all provincial Lung Associations until 2004. Dr. Donald Cockcroft was appointed Ferguson Professor.|
|1997||The Saskatchewan Lung Association, in collaboration with the Manitoba Lung Association, developed the ASTHMATrec program to train health care professionals to be asthma educators. It quickly became and continues be the pre-eminent program of its type in Canada. Robert Ferguson (son of Dr. R.G. Ferguson) became President of the Saskatchewan Lung Association.|
|1998||The Saskatchewan Lung Association home oxygen program began, contracted by Saskatchewan Health to provide training for home-oxygen personnel in health regions across the province and an overnight oxygen testing service for people with lung disease.|
Saskatchewan Lung Association directed a $5 million international development program funded by CIDA to strengthen TB control in Ecuador. The program continued for 8 years.
The Canadian Lung Association Respiratory Therapy Society was formed to provide awareness of the knowledge and expertise of respiratory therapists regarding management of cardio-respiratory diseases, and to act as an advisory body and a resource to CLA.
|2000||A series of lung health webpages was developed for school students and teachers which, over the next 10 years, attracted over 15 million page views.|
|2002||The Saskatchewan Lung Association was restructured with the formation of the Lung Association of Saskatchewan and the Lung Foundation of Saskatchewan. The first edition of the Sleep Apnea Handbook was produced and was quickly adopted by other provincial Lung Associations. This handbook is updated regularly and continues to be used across Canada and around the world. The BreathWorks program for COPD patients was established and The Lung Association of Saskatchewan managed the program for the four western provinces.|
The Lung Association of Saskatchewan developed COPDTrec to train health care professionals to become COPD educators - the first such program in Canada.
The Canadian Respiratory Health Professionals (CRHP) is formed as the multidisciplinary successor to the Canadian Nurses Respiratory Society, Canadian Physiotherapy Cardio-Respiratory Society and The Respiratory Therapy Society.
|2005||Provincial legislation for smoke-free places came into effect.|
|2006||Dr. Darcy Marciniuk was appointed Ferguson Professor. The Lung Association of Saskatchewan developed and operated a home-testing program for sleep apnea in collaboration with the Saskatoon Sleep Disorders Centre. The success of the program led to the provincially funded SleepWell program for home testing. Marilyn S. Reddy became Chair of the Lung Association of Saskatchewan Volunteer Board.|
|2007||For the first time in the history of the province there were no deaths due to TB in Saskatchewan.|
|2008||The Lung Association of Saskatchewan developed SPIROTrec to teach individuals to conduct a breathing test called spirometry. ASTHMATrec, COPDTrec and SPIROTrec comprise the RESPTrec program which The Lung Association of Saskatchewan administers across Canada and trained over 1600 health care professionals. Dr. Frank Scott became Chair of the Lung Association of Saskatchewan Volunteer Board.|
|2009||The COPD Toolkit was launched to provide resources for COPD management programs across Canada at copdtoolkit.org.|
|2010||Paul Van Loon was presented with the Heather Crowe Award in recognition of his 27 years of service to the Lung Association of Saskatchewan, much of that spent in tobacco control and smoking prevention.|
The Lung Association focuses on all issues that affect the ability of Canadians to breathe easier every day. Our mission is to prevent all lung disease, help people manage their lung diseases and promote lung health. We work to help the 1 in 5 Canadians who have breathing problems.
Together with the Canadian Lung Association, and its societies; the Canadian Thoracic Society and the Canadian Respiratory Health Professionals, we help doctors and health-care professionals set the highest standards in patient care, and continue to expand their knowledge about lung diseases and treatment. We fund world-class medical research in Canada to find treatments, and ultimately cures, for lung diseases. On the international stage, we continue the fight against lung diseases and support smoking cessation efforts in Latin America.
Our work is made possible through the generous donation of all Canadians.